3. Urban Forestry
One of the mega-trends in world social development has been urbanization. About half of the world population and three fourths of Europe live in urban areas. The value of trees, parks and small urban forests has become increasingly recognized as a vital component in the maintenance and improvement of healthy and attractive urban environments in towns and cities around the world. Urban forestry and arboriculture (or simply urban forestry) can be defined as establishment management, where the planning and design of trees and forest stands with amenity values is situated in or near urban areas (Nilsson et al. 2001). Trees in the urban environment can be categorized into three different types:
1. trees in urban woodlands,
2. park trees and,
3. street trees.
Additionally, one could add the trees located in the yards of single-family houses or multi-storey houses to this defintion.
Urban trees often grow in more difficult conditions than their colleagues in the forests. However, some similarities (such as the multiple functionality of trees) do exist. Even though the functions and benefits of urban trees and forests are more specific, they can include the reduction of pollution and energy use, environmental amelioration, a contribution to psychological and physical health, aesthetic values, and recreational benefits. Urban forestry is also important in helping the urban poor receive benefits from fruit trees or firewood (Nilsson et al. 2001).